|Name||Brief introduction||Main features|
Max Planck Society (MPG)
Founded in 1948, it is a national academic institution funded by the German government. Its predecessor was the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (founded in 1911), with its headquarters in Munich and its research institutes all over the German states.
Focus on basic research, Interdisciplinary research atmosphere, research domains that need long-term support and that may not be suited with those pursued by universities
Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers (HGF)
Formerly known as the "Association of National Research Centres", it is the largest scientific research group in Germany and represents Germany's national scientific and technological research image in the international academic community.
Focus on basic research oriented toward future applications Large-scale major scientific projects The only organization that can provide solutions to complex problems of great significance to the scientific, social and economic communities
Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research (FhG)
Established in 1949, it is the largest applied scientific research institution in Germany and Europe, covering all fields of engineering science.
Focus on applied research Can be converted to new products, results of new industrial techniques, clients are mainly SMEs
Leibniz Federation of Sciences (WGL)
Research institutes under its jurisdiction are distributed all over the country, among which about 40 research institutes are located in the former East Germany.
Provide the conditions to conduct scientific research for member institutions and promote scientific cooperation among members